by Cynthia Green from NJIE November 5, 2005
Professor J Dumanov,
is a medical mycologist, clinical research pathologist in diagnostic medical
mycology specializing in the study of allergenic, toxigenic, pathogenic and
infectious fungi, molds and their pleomorphs within human habitations relevant
to human and animal health. The nationally and internationally
recognized scientist conducts indoor health risks research and investigative studies
for federal, state and local government and the private sectors.
Also as a clinical research lecturer and counsellor at law (non-attorney) he has trained, certified and
provided consultation to thousands of professionals including
medical doctors, clinical researchers, attorneys, academics, real estate, commercial,
industrial and related fields where mold poses health or legal
He sometimes refers to himself as
the "House Doctor" where his patients are water injured human habitations that result in "sick houses", "sick buildings" and other enclosures including motor vehicles.
Working with clinicians and their patients he is routinely
called by those suffering from immunologiical disorders, allergies, asthma, sick or
infected medical patients. He conducts subClinical Investigations® employing the subClinical Protocols™ and makes a "diagnosis"of
the patients' areas of possible health risk exposure. If there is a concern or problem
he prescribes a "treatment"
as needed. He appears
in the coming December 15
at 8 and 11 PM
Health Channel show entitled
Your House Out to Get You?" Rebroadcast
December 17 at 1 PM. (If you are reading this at a later date
check your local cable listing for a repeat showing or obtain
when available from the Discovery Health Channel).
Scientists, doctors and researchers in the show uncover many of the potential
risks hidden in the home including possibilities for burns,
shocks and explosions from appliances and more. With mold
getting so much attention from a fungal infection of Ed McMahon's
dog to Bianca Jagger's loss of habitability of her New York
City apartment the interest in mold is at an all time high.
Our medical mycologist discusses
some of his cases and talks about the risks and hazards associated
with mold within the home or workplace. This includes the
possibility of getting sick from contacting and inhalation of mold spores
and fragments or touching mold covered items, the neurological and physiological effect of mold toxins and damage to the
Important topics are covered especially
for the first time home owner. Get the family together and
get ready to watch "Is
Your House Out to Get You?" on Thursday, December 15 8 PM and other dates/times - see your local cable or satellite
In what turned out to be not only
an exclusive 2 hour recorded interview (edits
with permission. Ed.) with the professor,
also turned out to be quite startling with his revelations of discoveries
in his unpublished research. We conducted this interview shortly
after the final taping of this show in midtown Manhattan's City Lights Studios we
asked Doctor (hon.) Dumanov (founder
- Mycological Institute FMHH ) what do we know
about mold in the home and what is medical science telling us:
Are there true risks associated with
mold in the home? "Simply,
mold and fungi have no place within human habitations and has no proper place in the workplace especially if it poses a health risk. Scientifically, all fungi have only one role in the grand scheme of things as a catabolic molecular
processor and that is to digest and break down organic matter and
complex molecular formations into their simplest forms for
recycling. In doing so the fungi produce some interesting
biochemicals and serious problems in the process."
So what are the problems associated
with molds? "Generally two things
are the problem, the target of the catabolic process and the
resulting byproducts of that process. First, it is OK for
mold to grow on cheese such as Brie, Camembert or Roquefort,
but when you have it growing
on and digesting your clothing, shoes, furniture or your house
then you have a problem. Then you have the highly allergenic affects of mold exposure that will lead to asthma and other chronic diseases. But as a medical scientist I know there is no greater danger to human health than many of the mold by-products formed
such as the neurotoxic, cytotoxic, genotoxic and
pathogenic secondary metabolites and extrolites that are produced.
Although less often there are the many possible mold
related infections, diseases and immune system damage and injury resulting in the invasion of human and animal tissue."
are the effects of these mold toxins? "The
range of effects of toxins from mold are very interesting and also very clinically complex. The
penicillin vaccine is a toxin produced by
Penicillium notatum, by some of the Aspergilli and other fungal
molds that has saved countless lives - that mycotoxin targets
nasty bacteria. Some of these toxins
cause unexplained fatigue, neurological disorders, distress and
responses including but rarely hallucinations. Cytotoxic,
pathogenic, immunotoxic and genotoxic toxins are at the focal point for
research in human health and their effect on humans is not fully understood by the majority of medical doctors except by those that specialize in this area. I will leave this topic by saying the most important thing to know and remember that mycotoxins are immunosupressive and highly carcinogenic."
Should we be afraid of mold?
"Clearly the medical literature documents mold as an
etiological agent (cause,
Ed.) for many human health conditions. A recent
publication (Fungalbionics) by the American A.V. Costantini,
MD from the UN's World Health Organization Center for the
Study of Mycotoxins in Food in a collaborative work with an
international team in a collection involving hundreds of studies
document the Deutromycota, the fungal mold and their toxins
involved as the cause of many diseases. Medical mycologists
will not culture some of these fungi in the lab because they
pose such a high risk and danger for infection and death.
But for a human of average health living in a dry mold free
environment the risk is limited and they need not be concerned.
How common are mold diseases? "We
encounter infected humans and often their animals from time to time
that have fungal disease. A disease caused by mold fungi
is called a mycosis. Often a fungal exposure or infection results in a mycosis,
abscess, necrosis or a fibroid immune response to the presence
of fungi is often and almost always called a tumor or cancer. Two of my recent
studies involved a 26 year old female with a large mold growth
in her left lung that required surgical removal and a 65 year
old male with a brain "cancer" that was later diagnosed
as being 2 different fungal mold growths. She fully recovered.
His condition after excision is currently considered hopeful.
In our investigation we found their homes were fully contaminated
with the genus and species involved in their disease in spite
of the previous 2 "mold inspections" stating there
was "no mold". In just the last few weeks we took on a new case
involving a 40 year old female with a bleeding nose, possibly
due to fugal mold related enzymatic necrosis. In our research pathology
I was able to identify both the genus and specie of fungi
known as Aspergillus terreus in the tissue samples and our toxicological research associates
with further analysis and serum assay were able to identify
the specific mycotoxins in the tissue samples."
Who is at most
risk? "It is about dosage of
specific mycotoxins and exposure to specific fungal molds
and the persons's health status. Genetically about 25% of the
population has an innate sensitivity to fungal mold and other
contributing factors. Some groups are clearly more vulnerable.
The humans most at risk are neonates, infants, elderly, diabetics
and those that have become neutropenic (low white blood cell count) or immunocompromised for many reasons including cancer
patients that have received chemo or radiation therapy and
those that have been on prolonged regimen of antibiotic or
transplant suppression therapy. We well know many mold toxins have the ability to damage the immune system. It is very important
to keep any open wounds clean and properly treated. Infections
from fungal mold are surprisingly common not just from airborne
mold but also from food and water. A common mold often found as a cause of invasive infection caused by Pseudallescheria boydii in even immunocompetent that may cause a heart attack - a myocardial infarction, invasive sinusitis, skin or central nervous system infection. But what is
even more interesting is that the presence of some of these
fungal molds may be related to yeast infections in humans.
This is the first I have heard of yeast infection being associated with mold. " Medical mycologists and physicians understand that yeasts such as the common Candida are just a different form of mold-this is not an over simplification. There are many fungal molds that can turn into a yeast and under certain conditions these yeasts turn into an invasive form of mold. We see this routinely in the laboratory. It is a phenomena called dimorphism, some of these fungi will also take on additional forms and are known as pleomorphs. This has been observed for over a 100 years and we now fully understood how and why these various morphologies come into being. Be aware that the so-called "Athletes' Foot " condition is a mold/yeast infection and can be contracted if barefoot at home or in the gym if these yeast fungi are present it is generally clinically diagnosed as onychomycosis. If you have repeated foot infection throw away your footwear as it is most likely the source and harbor for these fungi and of the re infection. "
pregnancy as a factor. "Yes, during
pregnancy olfactory sensitivity is increased for many reasons
and the are immunologiical and hormonal changes that occur
resulting in amplified response to environmental factors and
sensitivities especially to fungi, their toxins and especially
from mold that are not experienced by males. During pregnancy
a safe, healthy and mold toxin free environment is mandatory for proper fetal
development - this is why females are often asked if they
are pregnant so to avoid alcohol, a fungal toxin, along with
certain foods and medications that may affect such development.
This sensitively does diminish over time but the risk and
environmental burden if present in the home is now on the
homecoming newborn. Do not challenge the immune system of a newborn by bringing them into into a potentially
hazardous or toxic home mold-this is not to be taken
lightly, if you, a grown up or any adult family members gets
sick in the home and feel better outdoors or away you have
a problem and a with an undeveloped and immature immune system, a newborn
is nearly defenseless. The medical studies are clear and this information
is well documented on the web."
How can I tell
if there is a mold problem in my house? "I first want start off by saying that people often tell me every house has mold-that is totally false. I have investigated homes that are over 350 years in the US and over 1500 years and older in the UK, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Greece, Italy, Russia and other countries in the EU with absolutely no fungi or mold presence. I also see brand new homes in the US that have mold built right in because the construction materials were left in the rain, mold grew on it and was used to complete the construction."
"Now to go to your question about identifying a mold presence in the home. Often
you can see mold and or smell it but sometimes it is odorless
to you or there are minimal sensory indicators. In one of
our recent studies (Co. Sussex,NJ) a home owner found they had a mold problem
because their dog
was diagnosed by a veterinarian with a mold infection and put on the anti fungal Itraconazole
(Sporanox) for pets. Her physician later determined she
was also mold infected. The house was later found to contain
hundreds of square feet of mold in the walls, floor and ceiling that was concealed by the seller of the recently purchased home and not noted or suspected by the home inspector. Numerous law suits were filed against sellers, inspectors, remediation companies and real estate agents-they all had a responsibility to have this property competently inspected-the odor was obvious and you could see the mold. "
Do you also find
this problem in apartments? "A little less
so than in single family houses mainly because apartments
have no cellars or attics since these areas are common harbors
and reservoirs with the potential for mold growth. Mold can be found anywhere and especially in damp basements where it is hidden in the wall and ultimately collecting in the attic. In habitations such as apartments
you will find mold most often in kitchen and bathroom ceilings,
walls and floors especially if there have been leaking steam or water pipes. Another good place to look is about the
dish or clothes washer if you have one."
Do you ever find it in the office or workplace? "We often investigate child care centers, health care and medical offices but rarely investigate the workplace such as manufacturing or related process environments due to the high level of industry, state and federal regulations that control those environments so in theory these places are very safe. From time to time and under special circumstances we accept such investigations for medical and health research purposes often on the behalf of the state or other interests due to our investigative expertise in environmental toxicology or epidemiology relating to mold. Some of the most interesting investigations and findings have been conducted and revealed where people are working due to the specialized and concentrated activity in the nature of the business. This is especially true in food processing areas that are not properly maintained. A recent case involving a 175,000 square foot executive office building of a bank that housed hundreds of workers we found ductwork fully contaminated with mold associated with kitchen cafeteria operation. Upon entry at the reception area the mold odor was immediately detected but almost unnoticed by the majority of workers yet symptomatic complaints were widely reported. We found fungal mold to be present throughout the building."
highly recommended that prior to taking occupancy of any new
building that management have a full investigation of the
indoor environment with a focal point for fungi, mold and bacteria especially
if there is any history of water damage. We see many instances
where companies move into a new office that has mold or other
indoor air quality issues. I continuously advise management
that any and all new offices be fully investigated before
moving workers to a new location since poor
indoor air quality or mold presence affects performance, production
and does account for lost work days. I also recommend that
management take note and observe their employees for indicators
that there may be a problem by listening to complaints and
acting promptly with a qualified subClinical Investigation by a certified clinical industrial hygienist for such investigation."
What are the symptoms
of mold exposure? "Depends
on many factors. Your personal health status such as the pregnancy mentioned, the amount of mold,
duration of exposure and the species of mold you are being exposed
to is very critical. Chronic fatigue syndrome is commonly associated with toxic fungi. There is also a long list of exposure symptoms of which allergic
bronchopulmonary responses are common and immediate type one responses with watery eyes, coughing and sneezing often upon the mere entry into a room with mold present.
Long term symptoms may include, pyrexia (fever), peritonitis (stomach pain), lymphadenopathy and melioidosis (swollen lymphs or glands), headache, chills, sleep disturbance, cutaneous (skin) lesions, sinusitis, itching, and more. Other times humans
experience a delayed type two response six or more hours then have
resulting flu like symptoms that may last for weeks. Then there are other exposures that result in asymptomatic responses - you
will have to attend one of my lectures. If your physician believes you have been exposed they may order or perform immunological tests
or require serum samples to be sent to a laboratory that will tell if you have had any significant mold exposure to toxins."
are there available? "We give guidance
and consultation from time to time to medical doctors new
to practical medical mycology. There are many different tests available
that your physician can prescribe if there are indications
that the tests are called for. If your home or habitation
was investigated and there is history of water damage or a
significant mold presence you should provide a qualified subClinical (TM) Investigation
report to your physician and allow the physician to determine
relevancy to your health. Your immune system typically responds
with elevated IgE and IgG titers
and other antibodies in both salvia and blood when exposed
to members of the genus Aspergillus
and Penicillium, both are a common allergenic
fungal mold group. Skin prick tests (SPT) and Enzyme Linked
Immuno-Sorbent Assays (ELISA) will help to determine your
mold and other sensitivities (allergens) and exposure to clinically
relevant fungi or mold. There are other tests, markers and
indicators of exposure and infection including the use of
a fungal mold PCR panel, blood serum (plasma) analysis that your physician,
allergist or immunologist will screen you for and may order
such tests and others if such indicators of exposure or illness
are present. Medical doctors must also be mindful that some tests that indicate false or irrelevant positives. "
How about testing
my home? Should people test their own homes. I hear it's easy?
"I always shake my head when I
hear about testing. Testing is a methodical scientific process
considering many complex factors starting with the host. Nearly
all testing on your own is pointless. The common mold kits
you buy can be taken anywhere and something will grow and
it will be a fungi or fungal mold of some kind and even the
possibility of algae, plants, yeasts and bacteria. The often
misunderstood and misused air test kits too are a problem,
just like the sample kits they are not being used correctly
or appropriately in nearly all cases reviewed. As an example
I was called in a legal matter to review a recent inspection
where the mold spore counts were in the millions for an air
sample, such a count is not normally possible. I later interviewed
the "mold inspector" that did the testing and he
disclosed that he placed the air sampler right on top of the
mold forcing into the air cell and representing it as an "air
sample" - I am an advocate for rigorous training and
qualified clinical certification for this practice. Internet mold inspection
diploma mills or correspondence courses just don't provide
adequate training or experience for investigating when there
is a true health risk present. Apprenticeship under the auspices of the experienced is required. Always ask how and where trained. "
So how should one use a mold test or sampling kit? "There
are so many different ones available each used for very specific
purposes. I could talk about tests kits ad nauseam. Test kits
in the hands of a non scientist have little value other than
telling you what we all know already that mold and bacteria spores and
fragments are commonly present everywhere. Without fully understanding
this simple fact and what it means to an investigator or inspector
sampling often leads to more confusion and most cases unnecessary alarm,
confusion, distress and expense. Simply just because you
have mold growing on a "test kit" does not mean
you have a mold problem. " Key questions have to be
formulated for every investigation before any testing is to
be considered. If you have the potential for a fungal mold
related health problem nothing less than a fully qualified
scientific study must be performed. For health, clinical or epidemiological purposes we have developed the subClinical™ protocols for such investigations. Investigating and testing for health purposes is completely different than a the so-called mold inspections and takes into consideration many critical clinical, medical and health factors that must be considered."
need to be aware that fungal mold is often the same color
or offers little to no contrast to the background making that
mold undetectable. A recent case in Monmouth
county had such a presence of a very nasty mold with a young
occupant with a mold infection (fungal ball in left lung) that was later identified in
the home in a massive but unseen presence. Another case involved
a newer construction of about 5 years that had no water leaks
but presented extensive growth with hundreds of square feet
of a fungal mold known as Aspergillus ochreaus that was
the same color as the surface of the construction material
almost totally invisible to the untrained eye that revealed
by special lighting then sampling identified it to pathogenic.
Aspergillus. You mention these molds by
name. Why should I know what they are? "I
know, we are often told by people that do mold clean up it
does not matter and just clean it. Well in cases that is true
if you do not have a health issue or if it is a simple case
with fungal mold. A bathroom mold may poses a serious health risk. If there is a health
issue or concern such as a related allergy, respiratory condition
or even an infection then you must know the allergen or pathogen,
advise your physician and then making your known exposure
part of your medical history and record. Knowing that these
fungi can and do a times cause serious health injury or disease
you certainly must know which ones they are. We provide an
important clinical section in our reports that is directed
to the attending physician to complement their diagnosis with
such important leads. "
"You also want
to know whether these fungi pose a health risk so that the
workers are adequately protected and the proper procedures
are implemented in the remediation such as full containment
and control. In the case where the mold poses no problem
as in the majority cases the remediation may only cost you
a fraction of what it may cost if you have a presence of a
mold that poses high risk or possible health injury
to workers. If the mold presence is benign it may even
be something you can do on your own saving you hundreds to
tens of thousands of dollars. On the other hand if you have
a limited presence of a potentially infectious fungi your
biggest risk is spreading it throughout the property. Only
a fully qualified specialist can determine the difference
and relevancy to your experience. Obtain a health based investigation
since a general home or mold inspection is not designed for
and is not adequate for health purposes. This also true for
legal purposes. Normal mold inspections provide nothing
probative for health, forensic or legal purposes. "
Tell me about the
differences in investigation for legal purposes. "I
found law interesting enough to take a minor law degree earlier in my
career and it turned out to be essential in my current medical research practice as
it has helped me to understand the evidentiary burdens the
law places on the scientific standards relating to claims
associated with mold and health injury claims. Too many false
positive, too many false negatives. Simply, it gets far more
complicated when trying to tie health claims and legal claims.
Ultimately as both a health and legal investigator
I have the advantage of knowledge in both areas and often
provide guidance and direction to clients and their attorneys
regarding the medical and indoor environmental tests that
must be performed. It is very unfortunate when people
have a bona fide case or a real case, that is to say
a winnable case and just do not meet the legal evidentiary
standards and their cases are dismissed. I also see cases
going on for years with plaintiffs spending as much as $200,000.00 in medical and legal fees and then review them before trial for the
client or their legal counsel, review the medical and investigative
record and there is really nothing there but the wrong medical
lab testing and a pointless "mold testing and inspection" citing
hearsay within hearsay and without a cohesive, comprehensive integrated interpretation demonstrating causation.
On the other hand in other similar situations I conduct an
investigation or inspection connected with the medical findings,
write a report that is submitted to the triers of the facts
be it in court or other tribunal such as for workers compensation
or insurance and then the case ends for a petitioner or plaintiff or is settled immediately.
If you can not definitively tie in the applicable
testing with the medical tests, diagnosis and clinical record you will
lose a lot of time, effort and expense resulting in a dismissal.
Unfortunately for litigants I often see plaintiffs and defendants
that lose cases that could have been easily dismissed during pretrial or discovery or won at trial or settled. Attorneys
and clients routinely consult me reviewing the evidence for
trial or the record for appeal. Failing to make the record with such evidence at trial is nearly always fatal on appeal. "
Lets go back to mold.
Will a filter or ion machine in my home help if I think
I have odors or mold? "When
it comes to odors, indoor air quality issues or relating
to mold presence there are no simple answers to what
will provide you a benefit in any environment. These may benefit
you or not. Indoor environments can become very complex. Be
careful and selective before introducing any new system. Obtain a expert study, opinion and recommendation before
installing such a system and if already installed have an efficacy and performance assessment performed. Do not turn your indoor environment
and the air your breathe into a uncontrolled laboratory experiment."
So what do I do if I have odors or come
home from work and get sick all the time? "You
made the first critical observation and that is the connection
with the place that is giving you the problem. We see this
all the time. Once you have firmly concluded it is your home
that is giving you the problem then its time for a full subClinical Investigation® of your home. That is where the science comes
in. Unfortunately there are no simple ways of testing and
it does require a high level of expertise, instrumentation
and applicable science. Fortunately in all of our cases the
causative agents are identified within hours."
Are there any
new developments in medical mycology? "News
moves prudently in the sciences and even more so in life sciences
pertaining to human health. In the field of genomics, molecular biologists made a key
finding based upon the DNA of a bacteria. One of the causes
of pneumonia identified as Pneumocystis carinii, a parasitic
protozoan bacteria, has been reclassified and identified as
a fungi due to genomics was renamed last year as Pneumocystis
jiroveci. For medical mycologists this was an interesting
discovery and an important reclassification for treatment
Yes, but what
does that mean? "Good question,
it answers what medical mycology and molecular medicine is
all about. Simply fungi, plants bacteria and humans all have
a different molecular and cellular makeup. Drugs are designed
to target the difference in the cells, cell function, their
internal organs and reproduction. There has been an increase
in optimism for the health care profession because of this
research and we now have pharmaceuticals designing their drugs
to target these pathogens with more selectivity based upon
a better understanding of those targets."
What do we know about mold, cancer and
other fungal related diseases? "Relating
to neoplasia (new/abnormal
cell growth) , we know that mold produces many
toxins and exposure to some molds result in a cancer or unnatural
cell growth including fibrosis, metaplasia and of high concern fungal enzymatic dysplasia and or necrosis. We know that
the common skin mole is more closely associated to fungal
M - O - L - D than to any M - O - L - E. That is why dermatologists
tell humans to watch for any changes in their M O L E. Research observations have shown that dimorphic fungi yeast-mold
produce melanin to protect its DNA from UV radiation. The
melanin, brown spots, remain after a benign fungal mole has
died off or become dormant and while others continue to develop into a invasive hyphal state into
what becomes a malignancy.
I have investigated
cases where initial diagnosis was cancer and later from biopsy
and culture identified as a mycosis. Unfortunately there
are not enough post mortem autopsies to determine the cause
of death other than nebulous catch all clinical definitions
as the cause such as "tumor" or "cancer".
magnification) also fails in histopathology
to adequately identify fungal pathogens. In my opinion 30% of all humans die from a mold related disease that I will call a cancer! "
"If you want
to read something very interesting see Leyland H. Hartwell's
Noble Prize in Medicine Lecture delivered on December
9, 2001. In his opening speech he introduces the fact that
in culture cancer cells just like fungal mold, often described
by histopathologists as undifferentiated carcinomas, are immortal
just like fungal mold
in that they continue to grow even outside the body, when
normal human cells do not. If cancer cells are not human cells,
then what are they? Fungal mold? I'll email you a copy or
provide a link " * download link
Are we making progress in diagnosis and treatment?
Progress on multiple fronts not just in research but also
in diagnosis and treatment of humans exposed and infected
by fungi. Working as a clinical researcher I have worked in cases with some America's leading scientists and medical researchers including
Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker, MD (Maryland) developer of a protocol for diagnosis of fungal exposure and
disease described in
"Mold Warriors", Dr. Dennis Hooper, MD (Texas)and his
pioneering assay methods for the detection of mycotoxin exposure and clinical research scientist for his work with mycoses, pathologist Dr. Michael Gray, MD (Arizona), allergist/immunologist Dr. Michael Rudenko, MD (UK) for his research with mold allergens and others in the EU."
"There are many new discoveries that scientists are just overwhelmed with their findings and conclusions. We are certainly living in very interesting times. In the past week a new book ("Cancer is a Fungus") was published written by the Roman Oncologist Dr. Tullio Simoncini, MD detailing what I and many researchers have known for years that fungi and mold are involved in nearly all cancers. Dr. Simoncini says that they are not just involved but are the cause of many if not nearly all conditions referred to as 'cancer'. The book clinically documents the 'cure' of many cancer patients some that were 'terminal'. The book is written for doctors and patients. His work is fully supported by the findings published in 'Fungalbionics' by the UN WHO's Director for the study of mycotoxins in food, Dr. Antonio Costantini, MD (California) now at Frieberg University, Germany. In my opinion these doctors are truly heroes of medicine for our time."
A final question: What is happening in research?
As you know my current interest and studies in medical mycology is at the molecular level including the affect of fungal metabolites on metabolic pathways, mycotoxicity at many levels and related genomics directing the DNA lab of the Mycological Institute. Many interesting discoveries have been made. Much of the research is conducted and performed for research purposes, that which is of broader clinical interest we publish and present at medical and scientific meetings and conferences here in the US and abroad."
"A recent Japanese
study proved to be interesting suggesting that mold toxins have the ability to
signal the beta cells in the pancreas to shut themselves off
in a cellular process called apoptosis or programmed cell
death. These cells produce insulin. We may find a mycotoxin from a fungal
mold or yeast that is causing this disease present in type one diabetics. Other research has discovered that some cells become immortal due to mycotoxins and resulting in neoplasia."
"In wrapping up with global
research efforts in molecular medicine and medical mycology
well under way we are clearly getting a better picture of fungi and their role in human health."
Thank you for your time. "Thank
you for your interest."
For an earlier
interview (2000) and more please see: What is Fungal Mold Mycology?
See 2011 Mystery Diagnosis Interview
For a 2012 Interview see ISHAM Berlin
Questions for the professor may be directed to:
Last Updated: December 22, 2005
Copyright 2005-2006 Discovery Channel and NJIE