Instituut voor Studie van Schimmel in Menselijke Woningen

Institut pour l'Etude de Moisissure Fongique dans Habitations Humaines

Forschung Institut für Schimmelpilze in Innenräumen


for the study of


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ISHAM is a world wide organisation that represents all scientists and doctors with a special interest in fungal diseases. ISHAM is an independant society that is non-political and non-discriminatory. It exists solely to encourage and facilitate the study and practice of all aspects of medical and veterinary mycology.
The Mycological Society of America is a scientific society dedicated to advancing the science of mycology - the study of fungi of all kinds including molds,yeasts, lichens, plant pathogens, and medically important fungi.  

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Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Eye
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000 October; 13 (4): 662–685Stephen A. Klotz,1,2* Christopher C. Penn,3 Gerald J. Negvesky,4 and Salim I. Butrus4
Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Eye Stephen A. Klotz,1,2* Christopher C. Penn,3 Gerald J. Negvesky,4 and Salim I. Butrus4

1Section of Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri1; 2 University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City,2 and 3Lawrence Memorial Hospital, Lawrence,3 Kansas; and 4Department of Ophthalmology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, D.C.4

* Corresponding author. Mailing address: Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4801 Linwood Blvd., Kansas City, MO 64128. Phone: (816) 861-4700, ext. 6713. Fax: (816) 922-4687. E-mail:


The unique structure of the human eye as well as exposure of the eye directly to the environment renders it vulnerable to a number of uncommon infectious diseases caused by fungi and parasites. Host defenses directed against these microorganisms, once anatomical barriers are breached, are often insufficient to prevent loss of vision. Therefore, the timely identification and treatment of the involved microorganisms are paramount. The anatomy of the eye and its surrounding structures is presented with an emphasis upon the association of the anatomy with specific infection of fungi and parasites. For example, filamentous fungal infections of the eye are usually due to penetrating trauma by objects contaminated by vegetable matter of the cornea or globe or, by extension, of infection from adjacent paranasal sinuses. Fungal endophthalmitis and chorioretinitis, on the other hand, are usually the result of antecedent fungemia seeding the ocular tissue. Candida spp. are the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis, although initial infection with the dimorphic fungi may lead to infection and scarring of the chorioretina. Contact lens wear is associated with keratitis caused by yeasts, filamentous fungi, and Acanthamoebae spp. Most parasitic infections of the eye, however, arise following bloodborne carriage of the microorganism to the eye or adjacent structures


Current Perspectives on Ophthalmic Mycoses
Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology  Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003 October; 16 (4): 730–797
DOI: 10.1128/CMR.16.4.730-797.2003
Philip A. Thomas* Department of Ocular Microbiology, Institute of Ophthalmology, Joseph Eye Hospital, Tiruchirapalli 620001, India

*Department of Ocular Microbiology, Institute of Ophthalmology, Joseph Eye Hospital, P.B. 138, Tiruchirapalli 620001, India. Phone: 91-431-2460622. Fax: 91-431-2415922. E-mail:

Fungi may infect the cornea, orbit and other ocular structures. Species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, dematiaceous fungi, and Scedosporium predominate. Diagnosis is aided by recognition of typical clinical features and by direct microscopic detection of fungi in scrapes, biopsy specimens, and other samples. Culture confirms the diagnosis. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, or DNA-based tests may also be needed. Pathogenesis involves agent (invasiveness, toxigenicity) and host factors. Specific antifungal therapy is instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Amphotericin B by various routes is the mainstay of treatment for life-threatening and severe ophthalmic mycoses. Topical natamycin is usually the first choice for filamentous fungal keratitis, and topical amphotericin B is the first choice for yeast keratitis. Increasingly, the triazoles itraconazole and fluconazole are being evaluated as therapeutic options in ophthalmic mycoses. Medical therapy alone does not usually suffice for invasive fungal orbital infections, scleritis, and keratitis due to Fusarium spp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Pythium insidiosum. Surgical debridement is essential in orbital infections, while various surgical procedures may be required for other infections not responding to medical therapy. Corticosteroids are contraindicated in most ophthalmic mycoses; therefore, other methods are being sought to control inflammatory tissue damage. Fungal infections following ophthalmic surgical procedures, in patients with AIDS, and due to use of various ocular biomaterials are unique subsets of ophthalmic mycoses. Future research needs to focus on the development of rapid, species-specific diagnostic aids, broad-spectrum fungicidal compounds that are active by various routes, and therapeutic modalities which curtail the harmful effects of fungus- and host tissue-derived factors.